Color Science has been an area of scientific research for over 100 years. Brought together in 1931 by the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) this sphere of science studies all aspects of human perception of color and brightness. Early use was to study how dyes could be mixed. The issues of color printing and the effects of different viewing conditions on perception. There are large amounts of research and books published relating to this subject.
The definitions for all our television and cinema viewing standards are rooted in color science. The numeric definition of r,g,b and the conversions to YCrCb are examples of the practical use of color science. In this multimedia world media transportability and maintenance of creative intent would not be possible without color science defining the solid core of math to support the industry.
See also: Color Space